Anderson, Charles W(illiam) (b Oxford, Ohio, 28 April 1866; d New York City, 28 June 1938). Public official. After moving to New York City in 1886 he became active in Republican politics, and in 1890 he was elected president of the Young Men’s Colored Republican Club of New York County. He was a gauger in the district office of the Internal Revenue Ser vice, the private secretary to the trea sur er of New York State (1895– 98), and the supervisor of accounts for the state racing commission (1898– 1905). In 1905 President Theodore Roo se velt appointed Anderson as the collector of internal revenue for the second district of New York City (encompassing Wall Street and the major piers), considered one of the most important federal positions in the city. He reportedly received the appointment through the influence of his friend and close po liti cal associate Booker T. Washington. Dismissed from office by President Woodrow Wilson in a purge of black Republicans, he later held se nior positions in state government and again served as collector of internal revenue from 1923 to 1934. James S. Kaplan Andrew W. Mellon Foundation. Charitable or ga ni za tion. It began operations in June 1969 with the merger of two foundations set up by the children of Andrew W. Mellon: the Avalon Foundation, formed in 1940 by Ailsa Mellon Bruce (d 25 Aug 1969) and based in New York City, and the Old Dominion Foundation, formed in Virginia in 1941 by Paul Mellon (d 1 Feb 1999). The foundation makes grants in the areas of higher education, cultural affairs and the performing arts, pop- apartments 45 1880s, some having as many as 20 rooms: one of the best known was the Dakota (1884, Henry J. Hardenbergh). To counter the prejudice against apartments that was still common among wealthy residents, many of the new buildings were developed as cooperatives; this arrangement gave residents a financial interest in their apartment that was tantamount to own ership and offered ser vices such as catered meals and domestic help. Not all apartment buildings were luxurious, however. Tenements provided compact rental housing for poor and working- class immigrants at a monthly rent of two to three dollars a room. Before the late nineteenth century most tenements in New York City were railroad apartments, or railroad flats, which contained several rooms in a line, usually without windows, that entered into one another and lacked a hallway. The Tenement House Law of 1879 set standards for space, ventilation, and hygiene and implemented the dumbbell design: between the front and back rooms the exterior walls were indented, creating large air shafts between adjacent buildings. In 1901 the law was amended to mandate a toilet for each dwelling, separate living and sleeping rooms, and adequate light, which brought the tenement closer to the level of other apartment buildings in the city. At the same time the number of luxury apartments increased in Manhattan, especially on the Upper East Side and Upper West Side, where three large apartment buildings along Broadway were each briefly promoted as the world’s largest: the Ansonia (1904, 17 stories, Graves and Duboy), the Apthorp (1908, 12 stories, Clinton and Russell), and the Belnord (1908, 12 stories, Hiss and Weeks). The great number of apartments built in the 1920s had become less luxurious than their forerunners, for the new large- scale apartment building was now the modest domain of the middle class. The gap between tenement and apartment building was further narrowed by the Multiple Dwellings Law (1929), which eliminated the legal distinction between the two types of dwelling and united all categories of housing under a uniform set of design controls. With the onset of the Depression, luxury apartments became smaller: in the Century on Central Park West (1931, Jacques Delamarre), each apartment had only one or two bedrooms. Most innovations in the building of apartments from the late 1920s on were made in the outer boroughs, where low- rise garden apartments for the expanding middle class were built on cheap land newly accessible by subway. Large developments were constructed in Jackson Heights and later along the Bronx River Parkway, the Pelham Parkway in the Bronx, and the Eastern Parkway in Brooklyn. Some apartment buildings in Manhattan had small gardens enclosed in courtyards, among them the Hudson View Gardens (1924, George F. Pelham), Tudor City (1928, H. 1940s she or ga nized unions and worked to improve educational opportunities for Puerto Ricans. In 1965 she founded and became the fi rst executive director of United Bronx Parents, an or ga ni za tion that encouraged parents to take part in the school system and that offered various social ser vices in the South Bronx. After her death, the Puerto Rican Studies Library and Archives at Hunter College were named for her. Nélida Pérez Antonini, Luigi (b Vallata Irpina, Italy, 11 Sept 1883; d New York City, 29 Dec 1968). Labor leader. He joined the International Ladies’ Garment Workers’ Union as a dress presser in 1913 and became a leader of Italian workers in New York City. In 1919 he organized Italian Dressmakers Local 89, of which he served as general secretary. Elected vice president of the union in 1934, he joined with its president, David Dubinsky, to form the American Labor Party in New York City in 1936 and the Liberal Party in 1944. Antonini later led the Italian- American Labor Council in opposition to Mussolini and assisted in rebuilding demo cratic trade unions in Italy after World War II. Philip V. Cannistraro, “Luigi Antonini and the Italian Anti- Fascist Movement in the United States, 1940– 1943,” Journal of American Ethnic History, vol. 5, no. 1 (Fall 1985): 21– 40; John Stuart Crawford, Luigi Antonini: His Infl uence on ItalianAmerican Relations (New York: Education Department, Italian Dressmakers’ Union, Local 89, International Ladies’ Garment Workers’ Union, 1950) Robert D. Parmet A.P. See Associated Press. apartments. The fi rst apartment building in New York City was the Stuyvesant, designed in 1869 by the architect Richard Morris Hunt, the first American to attend the École des Beaux- Arts. The building was also called the French Flats, a term later used more broadly for any dwellings of the same kind (which were not known as apartments until the 1880s). Early apartment buildings in Manhattan were constructed at a time when most middle- class families in the city lived in row houses. In contrast to row houses and their descendants, the brownstones, which had dark interiors and were costly to maintain, apartment buildings symbolized modern technology and new ways of family living. Apartments signaled a shift in the cultural ideals of the upper middle class from its colonial Anglo- Saxon origins to the culture of the Continent, especially that of Second Empire Paris. In 1871 Hunt completed the Stevens House, an eight- story building with a passenger elevator and other technological innovations.