archives. The history of archives in New York City mirrors the broader development of archival management in the United States, where a strong archival tradition did not exist before the fi rst half of the twentieth century. It was not until 1934 that the National Archives and Rec ords Ser vice (now the National Archives and Rec ords Administration) was created. New York State was the last state in the country to have a formal archives program, which was established by legislation in 1971 but not in full operation until the late 1970s. The most efficiently managed collections were within libraries. The Astor Library, formed in 1848, included among its holdings the extensive rec ords of the U.S. Sanitary Commission, a private relief or ganization of the Civil War era. The Astor Library’s holdings were supplemented by those of the Lenox Library when the two institutions merged to form the New York Public Library (NYPL) in 1895. The New- York Historical Society, founded in 1804, collected the rec ords of the John Jacob Astor’s American Fur Company, the New York Board of Trade and Transportation, and the rec ords of the American Art Union, as well as numerous eighteenth- and nineteenth- century account books of merchants from New York City and New York State. By the middle of the twentieth century, organizations such as the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace and Citizens Union had transferred their rec ords to the Columbia University Libraries. The papers of individuals and families were also collected by these libraries and others, including the Brooklyn Historical Society (formerly the Long Island Historical Society) and the Staten Island Institute of Arts and Sciences. Archives were kept less formally by some cultural and nonprofit organizations (such as the New York Philharmonic) and by some businesses. In 1946 Time Inc. became the first corporation in the city to establish a formal archival program; others followed after nearly a de cade. In the middle and late twentieth century, the city’s archival repositories increased in number and in importance, and they were found in a wide range of government agencies, nonprofit organizations, and corporations. A Guide to Archives and Manuscripts in the United States (1961), edited by Philip M. Hamer, counted 56 repositories in New York City; its successor, the Directory of Archives and Manuscript Repositories in the United States (1988), counted 168, and according to the New York State Historical Documents Inventory, the number of publicly accessible archives in the city in the late 1980s was 285. Inspired by the growing influence of social history, new and often identity- centered archives were established, such as the Lesbian Herstory Archives (1974) and the archives of the Center for Puerto Rican Studies at Hunter College (1981). Archival management emerged as a professional field, owing in part to the growing historical awareness fostered by the bicentennial of the United States in 1976. That year, New York University’s graduate history department established a two- year master’s degree program in archives and documentary editing. Later, Columbia University, St. John’s University, Pratt Institute, and Long Island University (with campuses in Manhattan and Brooklyn) added courses in archival management to their graduate library schools. The Archivists Round Table of Metropolitan New York was formed in 1979; in the early twenty- first century it had almost 300 individual members representing 155 institutions, making it one of the largest regional archival organizations in the nation. In 1989 the Archivists Round Table initiated the fi rst annual “Archives Week,” which featured publicity campaigns, family history fairs, awards, tours, and exhibitions to increase public awareness of archives. The idea spread to many states and cities; since 2007 American Archives Month has been observed annually across the country in October. In difficult economic times, archives in many corporations and nonprofit institutions were seen as expendable. Chemical Bank, the Bowery Savings Bank, and the Young Men’s Christian Association of Greater New York all ended their archival programs; after a corporate merger the archives of J. Walter Thompson were closed and the rec ords given to Duke University. As the cost of real estate in New York City increased in the 1980s, some corporations (such as J. C. Penney) and nonprofit organizations (such as the American Institute of Physics and the Salvation Army) left the city, taking their archives with them. Columbia University closed its School of Library Ser vice in 1992. In 2002 the Teachers College Library closed its Special Collections Department, which had held almost 3000 linear feet (915 linear meters) of rec ords of the history of education and nursing. The largest repositories in the city are those of governmental and quasi- governmental agencies, in par tic u lar the Municipal Archives, which holds most of the rec ords of city government. This collection is complemented by the holdings of the Office of the New York County Clerk and autonomously held city agency rec ords, such as those of the Department of Environmental Protection. The records of federal agencies with offices in the Greater New York area are in the custody of the National Archives– Northeast Region in lower Manhattan. The archives of the United Nations (UN) contain historical rec ords relating to the UN and its agencies. Libraries, historical societies, and research institutes account for the next largest segment of repositories, holding personal papers and or ganization al rec ords from a wide range of sources. The collections of archival materials in the NYPL are divided among several divisions within the Research Libraries. The largest of these is the Manuscripts and Archives Division in the Center for the Humanities, housing general historical and literary collections as well as the rec ords of the library itself. Also at the NYPL are the Berg Collection of En glish and American Literature; important special collections in the Theater, Dance, and Music Divisions of the Performing Arts Research Center at Lincoln Center; and original rec ords that chronicle the African diaspora at the Schomburg Center for Research in Black Culture. The New- York Historical Society holds more than two million items that illuminate the history of New York City and New York State from colonial times to the twenty- fi rst century. Its collections include the papers of Rufus King, the Livingston family, Aaron Burr, and James and William Alexander, as well as extensive military records. Smaller but nonetheless important collections of original rec ords are maintained at the Pierpont Morgan Library, the Brooklyn Historical Society, the Bronx County Historical Society, and the Staten Island Historical Society. In 2000 five major Jewish archival and cultural organizations joined as partners in the Center for Jewish History, bringing under one roof the archival holdings of the American Jewish Historical Society, the Leo Baeck Institute, the YIVO Institute for Jewish Research, and the American Sephardi Federation along with the art and artifact collections of the Yeshiva University Museum. Among colleges and universities in the city, the largest repositories are at Columbia University and New York University. The Rare Book and Manuscript Library at Columbia includes not only extensive general holdings with par tic u lar strengths in publishing and political history, but also the distinctive collections of the Herbert H. Lehman Papers, the Bakhmeteff Archive of Rus sian and East Eu ro pe an History and Culture, the Carnegie Collections, the Center for Human Rights Documentation and Research, and the Oral History Research Office. Columbia’s Avery Architectural Library houses one of the most important collections of architectural archives in the world. Notable repositories at New York University include the Wagner Labor Archives, the Tamiment Library, the University Archives, and the Fales Collection of literary manuscripts. University archives and historical collections are also maintained by Fordham University, Pace University, Yeshiva University, the Jewish Theological Seminary, and the City University of New York, as well as by many of the latter’s individual colleges, particularly City College, the College of Staten Island, and the LaGuardia and Wagner Archives at LaGuardia Community College. Other important archives in New York City are maintained by businesses (for example, the JPMorgan Chase Bank, the New York Stock Exchange, MetLife, Teachers Insurance and Annuity Association– College Retirement Equities Fund, the Shubert Or ganization); religious institutions (Trinity Church, Central Synagogue, the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Brooklyn); museums (the Museum of Modern Art, the Brooklyn Museum, the Frick Collection); cultural organizations (Carnegie Hall, the New York Philharmonic); medical and scientific institutions (New York Hospital– Cornell Medical Center, the Mount Sinai Medical Center, the New York Zoological Society); and a variety of not- for- profit organizations (the 92nd Street Young Men’s and Young Women’s Hebrew Associations; the Ford Foundation). The role of New York City as a center of the arts and the communications industry is reflected by the presence of such diverse repositories as the Anthology Film Archives, the Archive of Contemporary Music, and archives of fi lm and video at the major television networks. The terrorist attacks of 11 September 2001 prompted a response among the city’s archivists and historians seeking to document the catastrophe. Within a few weeks of the attacks, the Columbia University Oral History Research Office began interviewing individuals who were in some way affected by the attacks and their aftermath, eventually sponsoring five different projects that recorded more than 300 interviews. Similarly, city archivists began meeting in late September 2001 to discuss documentation strategies, and the Archivists Round Table subsequently undertook a two- year study funded by the New York State Documentary Heritage Program, identifying more than 260 major repositories holding 9/11 documents and objects. Some institutions, notably the New- York Historical Society, found themselves inundated with memorabilia such as banners and posters, which were costly to preserve and often of negligible informational value, but so laden with symbolic significance that any discussion of sampling or deaccessioning could engender accusations of sacrilege. As they moved into the twenty- first century, the city’s archival repositories faced the unpre ce dented challenges of the information age — challenges ranging from the ways information about holdings was delivered, to the content of the rec ords themselves, to the preservation of “born- digital” rec ords. Most major academic and research libraries made collection- level information for their archival collections available online via their Web sites. Some, such as the NYPL, Columbia University, and the New- York Historical Society, began to provide Web access to selected digitized documents from their collections. In 2005 Columbia University’s School of Continuing Education inaugurated a new Master of Science program in Information and Archive Management. The curriculum reflected society’s shifting understanding of the meaning of archives, de- emphasizing the historical significance of documents in favor of the management of current or recent electronic records.