Federal and Antebellum New York City, 1784– 1860 Local builders, rather than architects, were responsible for most of the design and construction in the growing metropolis. They copied the work of others or relied on pattern books that supplied everything from the detail of a stair banister to a complete plan. Most early nineteenth- century buildings were small, stood one to three stories tall, and were used for both work and residence. Three- and four- story brick buildings near the piers of South Street had merchants’ counting houses on the fi rst story and manufacturing and storage facilities in lofts in the upper stories. Until the mid- 1820s the few buildings with architectural details copied those of the late Georgian and early Federal styles. A notable exception was the French- inspired City Hall, one of the fi rst important public buildings in the city, designed by the émigré architect Joseph- François Mangin with his Americanborn colleague John McComb, Jr. During the 1840s and 1850s, as land became more costly in the business districts of Manhattan and Brooklyn, houses were demolished or converted to commercial use. Residential neighborhoods moved away from the original downtown area. Brooklyn Heights and Greenwich Village became pop u lar residential areas, with new row houses modeled after the terraces of En glish cities. Built by speculators for craftspeople and the middle class, these row houses were suited to the city’s grid plan, which created narrow lots, and to its market, shaped by high land costs. The wealthy often supplemented their small town houses with large country houses on the outskirts of the city, among them Gracie Mansion (1804, now the mayor’s residence), Hamilton Grange and Wave Hill (1802, 1844, now museums), and Litchfield Villa (1857, now borough offices of the city’s parks department). The few formally trained architects in New York City during this time were usually educated in En gland, France, or Germany. They took on American pupils, as there were no architectural schools in the United States; a few Americans were self- taught. Their residential designs included mansions on Fifth Avenue and the grander row houses of the 1840s and 1850s surviving around Washington Square, at Colonnade Row on Lafayette Street in Manhattan, and in Brooklyn Heights. The leading architects of the time, Alexander Jackson Davis and his partner Ithiel Town, Minard Lafever, Richard Upjohn, and Detlef Lienau, received commissions for religious, institutional, commercial, and government buildings. These public buildings were large, costly structures with complex plans or “programs” that required knowledge of sophisticated construction technology and appropriate style. In 1857 two dozen architects in the city founded the American Institute of Architects (AIA), which continues in the twenty- fi rst century as the main professional or ga ni za tion. Their goals were to distinguish architects from carpenters, to improve architectural training, and to educate the public through newspaper and journal articles. Architects and builders favored Greek Revival style in the fi rst half of the nineteenth century. It was used by Lafever as early as 1833 for Sailors’ Snug Harbor, a home for retired mariners in Staten Island, and in 1848 by Gamaliel King for Brooklyn City Hall (now Brooklyn Borough Hall). After the Great Fire of 1835, new architecture included the U.S. Custom House (now Federal Hall) by Town and Davis and the Merchants’ Exchange (now Citibank) by Isaiah Rogers, both completed in 1842. Greek Revival details also adorned two innovative commercial buildings. The Astor House (1836) was the city’s first modern hotel: it had ornate public rooms, comfortable bedrooms, and running water, unusual for the time. The most important antebellum store, which revolutionized retail practices and paved the way for the department store, was A. T. Stewart’s “Marble Palace,” opened in 1846 on Broadway. Sizable religious buildings also appeared during this period. In the third Trinity Church (1846) Richard Upjohn introduced the Gothic Revival style to American religious architecture, followed by St. Patrick’s Cathedral, begun in 1853 and designed by James Renwick, Jr., in a style inspired by German Gothic. In the 1850s two technological advances originated in the city. The use of cast iron for mass- produced structural columns and ornamental facade elements, first promoted in the 1840s by James Bogardus as a means of fi reproofing, made it possible to build larger and better- lit commercial buildings (see Castiron architecture); and after the introduction of the passenger elevator, fi rst installed in 1857 in the Haughwout Building at Broadway and Broome streets, space in the upper stories of buildings became more accessible and profitable. These innovations later led to the development of steel cage construction and the skyscraper. Cast- iron architecture flourished from the mid- 1850s to the 1880s and created the streetscape of loft buildings and stores in the neighborhoods of lower Manhattan now called Tribeca and SoHo, and in Williamsburg and the Fulton Ferry district in Brooklyn.