From the Civil War to the Depression, 1860– 1930 From the 1870s through the 1930s, the skyline of Manhattan took shape and became world famous as the city’s population soared to seven million from one million. The development of steel cage construction, along with fast elevators, electric lighting, and sophisticated heating and plumbing systems, made possible the construction of skyscrapers, which became icons of the city’s global importance. The skyscraper and the apartment building became the two defi nitive architectural norms. In 1913 Cass Gilbert’s Woolworth Building was one of the first skyscrapers in lower Manhattan. Most skyscrapers were office towers housing national and international corporations and their thousands of workers. Along with the Woolworth Building, the Singer Building (1908) and Metropolitan Life Insurance headquarters (1909) became world famous, as did the Empire State Building (1931), reaching the equivalent of 102 stories and setting a record for height that remained unbroken for more than 40 years. The completion of the 40- story Equitable Building at 120 Broadway in 1915 helped to ensure the passage in 1916 of the city’s first comprehensive zoning code, which regulated land use and limited the height of buildings according to a formula involving their street frontage. As a result, the straight tower was replaced by the setback form, some striking examples of which are the Williamsburgh Savings Tower (1929, Halsey, McCormack and Helmer), the only skyscraper built outside Manhattan; the Chrysler Building (1930, William van Alen); the Bank of Manhattan Building (1930, H. Craig Severance with Yasuo Masui); and the Cities Ser vice Building (1932, Clinton and Russell). Entertainment architecture boomed and produced opulent buildings such as Carnegie Hall (1891), the Brooklyn Academy of Music (1907), the Metropolitan Opera (1883), and the Palladium (1949); these had fantastic ornamentation ranging in style from Baroque to Egyptian. During the 1920s and 1930s majestic movie houses were built for the national chains of Loews and Paramount. A few fi rms specialized in such projects, such as Rapp and Rapp, and Herts and Tallant; their commissions in the city set the standard for the country. Motion- picture production facilities were built in both Astoria and Manhattan before the industry moved west. Hotel construction rose dramatically and resulted in opulent, dramatic buildings, such as the Plaza Hotel and Waldorf =Astoria. At the same time, New York City became an important manufacturing center, filled with slaughter houses, markets, ware houses, breweries, and sugar- refi ning plants. The need to house the surging immigrant population resulted in the construction of thousands of tenements. These basic multiunit buildings, built at low cost, lacked sufficient windows, running water, and indoor toilets and were so badly constructed that they posed health and safety hazards, leading eventually to municipal regulation. The infamous dumbbell tenements, socalled for their shape, were fi nally outlawed by the Tenement House Law of 1901. American architects such as Ernest Flagg and I. N. Phelps Stokes pursued schemes for model housing for the poor that originated in Europe. Examples included the Home and Tower Buildings (1877, 1879, Hicks and Baltic streets, Brooklyn) and the York Avenue Estate (1901– 13, 79th Street and York Avenue, Manhattan); investors like Alfred T. White and the limited- dividend housing company City and Suburban Homes sought to create housing that was affordable for the working class yet had basic amenities and returned a small profit. Increasingly, a market emerged for apartments for the working and middle classes, built in upper Manhattan, Queens, Brooklyn, and the Bronx from 1910 to the 1930s. The small but growing number of architectural fi rms focused on designing residences for the wealthy; these included Edward and George Blum, Schwartz and Gross, George Pelham, Emory Roth, and J. E. R. Carpenter. Richard Morris Hunt pop u lar ized the “French flat” in 1869 with the Stuyvesant on East 18th Street. In the 1880s Henry J. Hardenbergh created even more elegantly fi nished and larger apartments such as the Dakota (1884) on 72nd Street and Central Park West, which pioneered the design of the large internal courtyard. The architectural firm of Clinton and Russell made the courtyard a prime feature at the Apthorp (1908) at Broadway and 79th Street. By the 1920s Park and Fifth avenues were lined with luxury apartment buildings that had rooms for servants, and large complexes such as Tudor City and London Terrace occupied full city blocks surrounding courtyard gardens. Delano and Aldrich designed 925 Park Avenue (1907) and 1040 Park Avenue (1923); the work of Charles A. Platt ranged from the palazzo- like Studio Building (1906) on East 66th Street to the austere tower at 120 East End Avenue (1929) commissioned by Vincent Astor, which contained apartments ranging from five to 23 rooms. As early as the 1880s a number of apartment buildings for the wealthy were set up as cooperatives, a fi nancial arrangement later adopted more broadly. Decorative styles of apartment houses of the 1920s and 1930s were varied: Georgian was fashionable in Manhattan, Tudor in Jackson Heights, and art deco on the Grand Concourse. Some architects specialized in free- standing onefamily houses, ranging from modest brownstones to luxurious mansions. A. T. Stewart’s mansion (1869), designed by John Kellum, was the fi rst of the luxury mansions to move to Fifth Avenue, which at 34th Street was considered uptown at the time. Babb, Cook and Willard designed the Upper East Side mansion of Andrew Carnegie (1901) and J. A. Sten house and C. P. H. Gilbert that of Otto H. Kahn (1918). The Astors and Vanderbilts built their mansions on Fifth Avenue in the 1880s and 1890s. “Country estates” were built from the 1870s to the 1920s in Staten Island (New Brighton), the Bronx (Riverdale), and Queens (Jamaica Estates), and successful business leaders built mansions in Brooklyn Heights, Park Slope, and Fort Greene. Row houses, often called brownstones because of the local stone used in construction, became pop u lar among the middle classes and proliferated in Manhattan and Brooklyn from the 1870s until the eve of World War I, when the need for more housing drove up the price of land and resulted in taller units. Brownstones were pop u lar in the Upper East Side, Harlem, Park Slope, Carroll Gardens, and Mott Haven. Town houses, individually designed large row houses, were built in Manhattan for the wealthy, especially on the Upper East Side where such families as the Roo se velts, the Pratts, and the Morgans lived. The simplest row houses, intended for workers in the trades and factories, were usually erected by local builders and consisted of two stories with brick facades. The most elaborate stood four, five, or six stories tall; had libraries, multiple parlors, bedrooms, and servants’ quarters; and featured ornate facades of limestone, brownstone, or combinations of masonry and brick. New York City also attracted architects interested in innovative urban housing design. Grosvenor Atterbury and Frederick Law Olmsted, Jr., designed the planned community of Forest Hills Gardens (begun 1910), a gardenlike suburb of one- family houses and terraces; Clarence S. Stein, Henry Wright, and Frederick Ackerman designed Sunnyside Gardens (1924– 28), a neighborhood of densely developed row houses. These experiments were sponsored by groups that favored more rational land use to lower housing costs and create better communities. Springsteen and Goldhammer designed apartments in the Bronx for the Amalgamated Clothing Workers Union (Amalgamated Cooperatives, 1927– 37) that allowed working- class residents to be own ers instead of tenants and to enjoy a large number of communal social activities. In the twentieth century New York City became a magnet for talented designers who practiced in fi rms, contracting their ser vices one job at a time; a few were employed by government agencies supervising public construction projects and sometimes designing buildings. Patrician firms such as Carrère and Hastings and McKim, Mead and White obtained the majority of large public commissions. Ethnicity played a role too: fi rms run by Jews and Catholics were usually small and often specialized in par tic u lar building types such as churches or apartment houses. Firms varied in size, from one principal employing a single draftsman to large establishments with several prominent partners supported by a large staff. Platt had a mediumsized firm with 17 employees in 1920. McKim, Mead and White employed 110 people in 1909; they designed the Municipal Building (1914) and Pennsylvania Station (1911). Architect training often took place in these fi rms through a studio system brought to the city in 1857 by Richard Morris Hunt, the fi rst American to graduate from the École des Beaux- Arts in Paris. Dozens of others followed him to France, studying at the École after obtaining a college degree or an architectural degree in the United States. (Although drafting courses had been offered in New York City since the founding of Cooper Union in 1859, the city had no degree program in architecture until one was established in 1881 at Columbia University by William R. Ware.) On their return they apprenticed young students who studied the classical architecture of Greece and Italy, as well as the interpretations of the classics in the Re nais sance and seventeenth- and eighteenth- century Eu rope that were at the heart of the beaux- arts curriculum. Until the 1920s few female or minority architects practiced in New York City. Marcia Mead (1879– 1967) became the first woman to graduate from the Columbia School of Architecture in 1913. She established her own fi rm in the city but built most of her important commissions elsewhere. The best- known building by a woman before 1930 was the reconstructed Theodore Roo se velt Birthplace (1923), designed by Theodate Pope Riddle (1868– 1946), a wealthy and successful designer of country houses and private schools in Connecticut. There were even fewer black architects. Vertner Tandy (1885– 1949) was a graduate of Tuskegee Institute and the designer of a number of buildings in Harlem, including St. Philip’s Church and Rectory (1911, with George W. Foster), Madame C. J. Walker’s town house (1917), and Smalls’ Paradise (1925), a jazz club. Among those who trained with him was John L. Wilson (1898– 1989), who became the fi rst black graduate of Columbia in 1928. He worked on the plans for the Harlem River Houses (1936– 37, Archibald Manning Brown) and then was employed by the parks department and had his own practice. Julian Abele (1882– 1950), the fi rst black graduate of the École des Beaux- Arts and the chief designer for the fi rm of Horace Trumbauer and Associates in Washington, D.C., designed the James B. Duke Mansion (1912, now the Institute of Fine Arts) at Fifth Avenue and 78th Street. Between 1890 and 1920 the beaux- arts style dominated, with its ornamental language, a preference for monumental scale, and use of symmetry, axial composition, and grand spatial progressions. Buildings in this style include the New York Public Library (1911), the Brooklyn Museum (1897), Audubon Terrace (1904), the Metropolitan Museum of Art (1902), the American Museum of Natural History (founded in 1869), Grand Central Terminal (1913, by Reed and Stem, and Warren and Wetmore), the New York Stock Exchange (1903), and the campuses of Columbia University (planned 1894) in Morningside Heights and New York University (planned 1892– 94) in the Bronx (both designed by McKim, Mead and White). Among the largest public commissions of these years were the Municipal Building (1913), the U.S. Custom House (1907, Cass Gilbert) at Bowling Green, the Hall of Rec ords (1899– 1907, John R. Thomas and Horgan and Slattery, also known as the Surrogate’s Court) on Chambers Street, and Grand Army Plaza in Brooklyn. Architects also designed bath houses, precinct stations, fi re houses, public toilets, and public schools; a leader in this last area was Charles B. J. Snyder, who worked for the Board of Education from 1891 to 1923. New York City supported innovative designs of public hospitals, including Bellevue Hospital (1908, McKim, Mead and White) on First Avenue at 25th Street, and Seaview Hospital (1914, Raymond F. Almiral) in Staten Island, the largest municipal tuberculosis hospital. The fi rm of Heins and LaFarge designed the New York Zoological Park, or Bronx Zoo (1899), and all the stations of Interborough Rapid Transit (1904), the fi rst subway line in Manhattan. e New York Public Library engaged severalThfi rms, among them Carrère and Hastings and McKim, Mead and White, to design its branch buildings.